Energy Efficiency


 The industries which account for the majority of industrial energy consumption are the intensive industries and at the same time the most vital industries. These include aluminum, chemicals, forest products, glass, metal casting, mining, steel, oil-extracting and oil refining industries and represent the greatest opportunities to increase industrial energy efficiency.

Oil and gas will remain the major source of energy for civilizations within decades and the international engineering community is concentrating its intellectual potential in the sphere of machines and technologies that produce and process hydrocarbon exploration.    

 By increasing power efficiency of industrial technologies by replacing asynchronous electric motors with the energy saving RPEY motors, we shall consider the example of the oil-extracting industry.  

 The electric motors are used in the structure of the drilling rig, submersible centrifugal pump installations, rocker-machine, objects of oil gathering and a field oil piping, objects of preparation of petroleum, gas-compressor stations, compression oil-well-gas, flow tank, objects of reservoir pressure maintenance, water-distributing system, water scoop, installations on clearing waste treatment and objects of auxiliary purpose.

The flowing well operation stage during oil field exploitation is generally followed by the lifting stage, which requires pumps of various types. Well distribution, according to operation methods, depends upon the applied oil field exploitation technology, well output, physical and chemical properties of crude. The gas lift or electric submersible pump installations are generally used for prolific wells. Gas lift technology requires a substantially fixed investment and it is efficient for wells with a high enough oil output. But when water cuts approach 90%, the gas lift technology becomes non-profitable.

That is why submersible centrifugal pump installations are predominantly used for enhanced oil recovery. During extraction of petroleum from a productive layer, there is a necessity to lower resistance of obliteration of actions of porous breed, through which the petroleum is taken. A different exit of petroleum and water can be closed by electro-osmotic interactions. The higher the speed of extraction of petroleum through the porous breed, the more probable is the stopping up of oil channels for very long time. For this reason, as is known, no more than 22 % of petroleum is extracted, while 78 % remain closed in petroliferous strata.

The technological re-equipment calls for a raise of efficiency in the use of electrical energy and the existing equipment at minimal expenses, also to prevent many ecological failures, as well as the rise of efficiency already existing in oil well industry from 22 % up to 80 % and ideally, up to 100 %. This process is possible to operate by the regulation of volume of a taken liquid in a wide range from a productive stratum. It will allow prolonging the "life" of an oilfield for 35 - 40 years and possibly up to 70 - 80 years or more.

Even an empty oil-well can come alive with extraction of a certain adjustable mode of water. And it can output petroleum in volumes no less than that of a new oilfield for many years. Another example is the main oil pipelines or the gathering lines, as a result of breakdowns, tens of thousands of tons of petroleum are spilled annually.

 Oil spills pollute the environment causing irreparable harm and bring millions of dollars of financial loss. As a rule, such failures are caused by hydraulic impacts arising during the start-up of powerful pumps in the petroleum highways. Certainly, the device of a smooth start-up partially solves this problem, but it does not solve the main problems, which is how to optimization of process of transportation.

Regulation in a wide range of powerful electric motors of an alternating current with the help of semi-conductor frequency control systems is a difficult task. RPEY have a steady high-speed range in the mechanical characteristic and a large starting moment. This property allows the application of the circuit "generator-engine" to regulate in a wide high-speed range of the RPEY high-power.

One more example is in oil-well drilling. The most known methods of drilling are: rotaries and air-power slips, turbo-drills, screw motors and electro-drills. The most efficient method of oil-well drilling would be with the help of an electro-drill which has an optimum speed. Without electro-drills it is not possible to achieve economic drilling.

But the absence of the adjustable electric motor with the high starting moment which is capable of working for a long time on small speeds, limits the effective and economic drilling which is carried out by electro-drills. For this reason the share of electro-drills makes up about five percents.

A typical gas-well is similar in its general arrangement to an oil-well. It has to meet more stringent standards for sealing efficiency. At the wellhead, a gas-well is equipped with a Christmas tree type and size selected to suit the well pressure, temperature and flow rate, plus the presence of sand and chemically aggressive component in the product.

Energy efficiency technologies in oil-extracting and oil refining industries are provided, first of all by controlled technological processes. The controllability, as is known, this is the property of technical object to have unequivocal dependence between control action and reaction of controlled object, and as exact reproduction of this dependence within the limits of given dispersion on the given interval of time.

In an ideal situation it is necessary to make all technological operation controlled, connected with production, transportation and processing of petroleum.

Therefore just the adjustable electric drives are a basis of high technologies. Today many experts understand this. Why then is the share of adjustable electric drives so is small? Even in such a rich as well as scientifically advanced country as the USA, the adjustable electric drives make no more than 10 % from general number of electric drives. Attempts to make controlled technological operations in an oil-extracting industry were undertaken for a long time.

This idea is not new, but suitable solution until now has not been found. For about 100 years the attempts have been undertaken to modernize the process of extracting petroleum, to increase efficiency and to lower its cost.  It was offered to change not only length of a course of a bar of the pump of the rocker-machine, to change the sizes of pulleys on the shaft, but also to adjust frequency of rotation of the shaft of the executive engine with phase-wound rotor by the engine of a constant current with independent excitation.

Try to apply rectifier drive (synchronous electric motor and control system on a basis thyristors). The large hopes were assigned to asynchronous electric motors with a control system regulating frequency of a current and voltage. The experience of use American of submersible asynchronous engines adjusted on frequency of a current, in conditions of  Western Siberiaand Ural has shown lowest reliability of a drive and high operational costs. It has appeared dearly and unreliably.

Unsuccessful attempts to use the executive electric motors of a various type in an adjustable drive are explained to that their choice was done without the account of five basic criteria showed to the executive electric motor.

1. The starting moment should be maximal and more nominal in 2 - 3 and more time.

2. The capacity of start-up should be of equal rated power (in an ideal).

3. The power EFFICIENCY of a drive during regulation (in an ideal) should not change in relation to nominal.

4. The control system should have low cost and operational charges.

5. It is reliable to work in complex geological and climatic conditions.

The properties of parametrical electric motors RPEY and of submersible electric motors RPSEY completely correspond to these criteria. The more detailed information about submersible electric motors of a type RPSEY...

An electrically-driven submersible centrifugal oil pump unit comprises of a submersible pump set (water-proof electric motor and pump), cable line, tubing, wellhead assembly and surface electrical equipment (transformer and control station, or a transformer/control package).

Wide choice of submersible electric motors with variety of performance parameters and design features is available on the market today along with equipment of leading firms in the USA: REDA, Baker Hughes-Centrilift, ESP, ODI,

in Slovakia: ZTS, in China: Temtex, in Ukraine: Khems, in Russia: Alas and Borets.

The engine consists of two assembly units - electric motor and hydro-protection as well as the three-phase and two-pole asynchronous motor with a squirrel-cage rotor. The engines of each series are subdivided on size of capacity and voltage. The engines make in one -, two and three-section performance.  The constructive circuit of submersible engines made by all firms - are identical.

The practical offers on technological re-equipment of a petroleum industry consist in modernization of asynchronous engines of any types traditional, submersible, protected from explosion.

And the modernization of electric motors under the circuit RPEY can be mastered "in place" on sites on repair of electric motors. The modernization of asynchronous submersible engines under the circuit RPSEY is not difficult for mastering on the bases of repair and service of submersible electro-pump installations.    

The economic preconditions of creation of new technical devices for submersible of the electro-pump equipment raising efficiency

The basic kind of oil-well of petroleum pumps in the world is the submersible of centrifugal pumps installations - SCPI. They extract up to 60 % of all petroleum in the world. SCPI is the completely delivered equipment including: of the submersible electric motor with protector; gas-buster; 2 or 3 sections of the multistage centrifugal pump; a cable line; station of management and transformer.

The small diametrical sizes oil-well have imposed constructive restrictions on the geometrical sizes of all elements SCPI. The section of the pump at an outside diameter of 114 mm has length of 5375 mm, and its shaft has length almost 5000 mm has a diameter only 17 mm or 22 mm (depending on productivity of the pump).

Length of the shaft of the electric motor by a diameter of 30 mm achieves 6000 mm. It is simple to present, what even small diametrical deviations  of the sizes within the limits of technological fields of the admissions, not speaking even about errors of manufacturing and the assembly, result in displacement of geometrical axes of shaft.

While in service of equipment it results in vibrations both separate parts, and all installation, there are failures, the reserve maintenance period of operation, and not only of the submersible equipment, but also oil-well is reduced.

The small diametrical sizes of separate elements SCPI do not allow to apply known couplings, capable to compensate misalignments especially with cross by axes. For this reason all elements of SCPI are connected between themselves solid couplings. 

Each technical device in structure SCPI during work (operation) has an own spectrum of fluctuations and vibrations.  Solid coupling do not compensate of misalignments displacement of geometrical axes of connectable of shafts on three coordinates and especially their crossings in space.

The gain-frequency rippling destroy joints of the connected units of the SCPI, that results to fatigue failure of bolts, stads, by break-away of separate parts of SCPI and fall its on the bottom of oil-well. The stoppage oil-well on repair, installation, dismantle and start-up of SCPI in difficult accessible northern conditions, by the sea or in desert, result in huge financial losses. Besides, the vibrations destroy unit oil-well.  Essentially raising the cost price of production of petroleum and reducing profit.  

The experts of the scientific project enterprise KOPEN have developed a method and device of protection of the connected shafts of electro-pump units of a type ADC (Articulated Double Coupling), which practically completely compensates all marked fluctuations and vibrations at the expense of presence 12 degrees of mobility for two shafts of the connected parts of SCPI, preventing break-away and fall of its separate parts on the bottom of oil-well. More detail ...

On one installation of SCPI it is required from 3 up to 5 ADC. Capacity of the Russian market in the ADC only for the oil-extracting equipment potentially is estimated as about 400.000 per one year. The capacity of the market of the World oil-extracting countries is about 2.000.000 of ADC per one year. The basic consumers of the ADC are the bases on repair and service of submersible electro-installations, and the specialized factories making oil-extracting equipment.

The work has an extremely important meaning, to provide much higher energy and financial efficiency of oil extracting and oil refining industries and to sharply decrease the expense of operation. The submersible electro-pump equipment makes only 3 % from general number of the machine-building equipment, where in ADC there is a real need.

The carried out preliminary analysis of the market has confirmed the fact, that the ADC is required in various industries. The prompt development of mass manufacture is necessary while analogues in the world are not present. To the process equipment of industrial purpose in various industries, global capacity of the market estimates about 5.000.000 ADC per one year.

The original design of the ADC is patented in The Russian Federation. The ADC is fulfilled, tested, produced and completely prepared for mass manufacturing.

The submersible equipment of various types and purposes not only for rise of petroleum and water from deep oil-wells, but also for the drilling equipment, contains in a design one more very important element - thrust bearing of sliding. The used thrust bearing of sliding by repeating the design of Mitchell developed for the sea crafts 150 years ago.

However, as well as in a case with the coupling for the connection of shafts of submersible equipment, the diametrical restrictions of dimensions of oil-wells have not allowed the application device with independent segments each of which densely would adjoin to the abutment.

In the thrust bearing of sliding for the submersible electro-pump equipment, instead of the special device containing mobile segments, the ring from oil-resistant rubber is used. The ring from oil-resistant rubber has not necessary plasticity. The dynamics of deformations does not provide densely would adjoin to abutment and there is an asymmetric destruction of abutment. 

It rises the moment of resistance, that especially negatively has an effect for work of the submersible equipment at start-up, in the curved oil-well and on the large speeds, and as reduces a time between failures. At work of the submersible electro-pump equipment on the large depths and in difficult northern areas or in area of northern seas, cost of failure very high.

For increase of reliability of work of thrust bearings of sliding our experts have developed an interesting design of the self-installing thrust bearing of sliding. More detail...

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